Summary of Revisions

To begin the revision process, I first started with correcting the grammatical errors pointed out by my peer review partner. These changes included specific word usage errors as well as words that needed to be plural. After correcting these grammatical errors, I then moved on to tackle the questions left by Dr. Wharton on my Google spreadsheet. More specifically, the central theme of these questions looked at the more unsightly parts of Atlanta’s history and questioning whether or not these mistakes should be preserved. This included adding a new section that looked at this component at each of the sites detailed previously in the analysis. Further, I also found a credible source to back up my points. After I finished crafting this particular section, I then proofread the writing and moved on to the next task. Finally, according to Dr. Warton’s feedback, I added links to each section in order to improve the reader’s experience by providing them with additional resources. (This also includes adding a link to the project description in case the user wanted to access the instructions per Dr. Wharton’s website.) All in all, the revision process enlightened me to explore new ideas and to see how the digital format can enhance the reader’s experience with the text.

Built Environment Analysis (Final Revision)

Historical Preservation's Impact on Atlanta's Economy and Physical State
Cherokee Nation Territory. Source: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/113504853089935162/

All cities have a history; Atlanta is no exception. In fact, many significant events have taken place on its soil that has shaped the city and its development. For example, the Cherokee nation established settlements around the city before European colonization. From there, settlement occurred and with it eventually the American Revolution. Many years later, Sherman’s March to the Sea passed through the city during the

Map of Sherman’s March to the Sea Route. Source: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/86/8e/dd/868edd2b8652ad09e5cc06c0b833d761.png

Civil War. In the 1960’s, various civil rights events also took place within. From this brief look at Atlanta’s history, it is evident that our city would be quite different without these events taking place. Further, the city would also be drastically different if the historical sites that existed from these time periods were not preserved. At an obvious level, the shape of the city would change because particular buildings and attractions would no longer exist; however, when looking at the benefits of such sites, the development of Atlanta would also be significantly different. More specifically, the historical preservation of sites and buildings around Atlanta has led to rapid economic growth that shapes the city’s aesthetic and future innovations.

Before delving into specific examples of this phenomenon it is first essential to consider the general benefits mentioned in the introduction. In order to effectively address this, I will utilize sources from the annotated bibliography assignment. The first benefit of historical preservation is the “job creation…and training” (Rypkema), which in turn leads to the creation of skilled workers who are essential to a healthy, thriving economy. (As an effect, population and per capita may also increase through the addition of more, better-paying jobs.) Along with the economic development, historical preservation shapes the city due to the fact that “historic preservation in Georgia spurs investment, attracts visitors, revitalizes downtowns, and effectively leverages scarce resources” (Georgia Department of Natural Resources Historic Preservation Division). While all of these components are equally important to Atlanta’s economy and infrastructure, it’s also important to analysis how historical

Sweet Auburn Neighborhood. Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6b/Royal_Peacock_mural_Sweet_Auburn.jpg

preservation and the economic development shapes Atlanta’s physical appearance. In more detail, the historical sites and buildings provide a specific look or aesthetic to the area creating what O’Connell calls “communities with character”. Not only does this quality foster a sense of pride for residents but also attracts tourists to experience the area’s unique flavor. In turn, the local economy benefits from the tourism sector, though the communities visual aesthetic. An example would be the Sweet Auburn neighborhood pictured above.

From these points, one may feel highly persuaded that historical preservation is the best solution for the question of decaying buildings, but there are also disadvantages one should consider. For example, most historical buildings do not provide the same accommodations for those with disabilities as newer buildings. Is the visual aesthetic and economic contribution worth the strain on the disabled population? Furthermore, one must also consider the rights of property owners versus making the historical site assessable for the general public.

Overall historical preservation has shaped the city and its sites as we know them today. In order to address the central theme, analysis of several examples is necessary to understanding our Atlanta.

For more information on Georgia’s history, please click the link below to view the Capitol’s official website.

http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/namerica/usstates/gatimeln.htm

Georgia State Capitol
Georgia State Capitol Exterior View.

Located in the heart of downtown Atlanta, the Georgia State Capitol stands as one of Georgia’s most notable and recognizable historical buildings. Built in the late 1800’s, the Capitol itself is composed of marble and the highly visible gold dome. Within its marble walls are antique paintings, furniture, and fixtures. One of the most obvious ways this example of historical preservation contributes to economic development and the shape of Atlanta is through the legislation that enters its doors. However, one may argue that this transaction of ideas could occur anywhere, so it may be more helpful and accurate to focus on the building through the lens of tourism for the sake of the piece.

Georgia State Capitol Interior View.

Unlike many historical sites, the Georgia State Capitol does not have an entry fee, which means that there is no profit being directly made from patrons visiting the site. However, tourism to the Capitol does still contribute to Atlanta’s economy indirectly. By this, I mean that the site attracts tourists to the Atlanta area. When visitors come to the Capitol they will most likely enjoy a meal and maybe spend additional time in the city shopping or even visiting other locations. All in all, the preservation attracts people to the area who will inevitably spend, in turn, strengthening Atlanta’s economy and providing funds for future innovations.

Dome Visible from King Memorial Station. Source: http://capturelifethroughthelens.com/2015/06/07/king-memorial-marta-station/

In addition to the economy, the Capitol also adds to Atlanta’s visual aesthetic. Could you imagine the skyline without the golden dome peeking out of the horizon? For example, pulling into the city on the Westbound MARTA train line, the Capitol is one of the first recognizable buildings to welcome visitors to the city. Further, visitors may have a similar experience when driving down Piedmont Avenue or even walking. To summarize, without the Capitol, Atlanta would have a completely different look and lose the economic activity associated with one of its most notable buildings.

In addition, the Capitol also exemplifies a solution to a problem identified in the opening paragraph. Namely, the lack of accommodations for the disabled or those with special needs, such a mothers with strollers. Because of recent construction projects to preserve the building’s infrastructure, the Capitol has also had innovations such as installing ramps and elevators to make the building more accessible for all citizens. Not only does this address the problem one may raise to argue the point, but it also provides an example of how the needs of historically preserved buildings can yield jobs that contribute to the economy, the people, and the history.

For more information on the Georgia State Capitol, the link for the site’s official website is included below.

https://gov.georgia.gov/capitol

Oakland Cemetery
Entrance Gate at Oakland Cemetery.

Like the Georgia State Capitol, Oakland Cemetery was established in the late 1880’s. Upon entering the brick gate, one is aware of the immense amount of history present through both the structures and residents. For example, one may stumble upon Margret Mitchell’s resting place or grand marble mausoleums inscribed with the date of a member who had passed away centuries ago. Regardless of individual experience, the site acts as a significant piece of both Atlanta’s past as well as its present and future economy.

View of Six Foot Under Restaurant from Oakland. Source: https://gravelyspeaking.com/2012/01/23/1056/

In a similar regard to the Capital, Oakland also does not require payment from visitors but still contributes to the economy just from attracting people to the area. One example that can be seen from the site is a restaurant called Six Feet Under. At this location, they are known for their seafood, beer, and a balcony that overlooks the cemetery. From this example, it’s clear to see that historical sites’ preservation has created new innovations and business that contribute both to the physical space as well as the economy of Atlanta’s surrounding economy.

Further, Oakland also promotes the use of Atlanta’s public transit, due to its close proximity to the King Memorial station. By promoting this use of transformation the site contributes to MARTA innovations as well as the economy in general.

For more information on Oakland Cemetry, the link for the site’s official website is included below.

www.oaklandcemetery.com

Centennial Olympic Park
View of Dancing Fountain at Centennial Olympic Park. Source: https://www.omnihotels.com/hotels/atlanta-cnn-center/things-to-do/area-attractions/centennial-olympic-park

In 1996, the summer Olympic games came to Atlanta, Georgia. Not only did this give a boost to the local economy, but the city gained the world’s attention. In commemoration of the games, Atlanta created Centennial Olympic Park with brick paths that lead to sculptures, fountains, grassy rest areas.

Aside from the visual aesthetic Centennial offers, the park also contributes greatly to both Atlanta’s economy as well as appearance. Let’s begin with the economy. As many are probably aware, within Centennial are several popular tourist

View of Grassy Area near the Georgia Aquarium at Centennial Olympic Park. Source: http://www.atlanta.net/partner/centennial-olympic-park/51/

locations including the Georgia Aquarium, the World of Coca-Cola, the Children’s Museum, the Center for Human and Civil Rights, and the College Football Hall of Fame. Due to the volume of visitors these sites receive, they contribute significantly to Atlanta’s economy. However, these funds are dependent on the historical preservation of Centennial, due to the fact that the park is the connection between the attractions. It’s where families enjoy their lunch in-between attractions. It’s where children splash around in the dancing fountain on a hot summer’s day. It’s where school children walk beaming with excitement. It’s where people come together in Atlanta. Centennial and Atlanta are synonymous. Which means that the park is integral to Atlanta’s physical appearance.

For more information on Centennial Olympic Park, the link for the site’s official website is included below.

www.gwcca.org/park/

An Area of Particular Concern when Considering Historical Preservation

Another relevant topic of discussion is whether or not certain events in the city’s history should be preserved. As exemplified in the introduction, Atlanta has been home to several historical happenings throughout the decades. Some of these events are considered good by the mainstream opinion, while others are seen in a negative light. There is no question that the good qualities of the city should be preserved and celebrated, but what about the bad? Should we ignore our past in order to move forward or should we preserve our mistakes and learn from them as a united people?

Portrait of MLK at the Capitol. Source: https://i0.wp.com/saportareport.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/MLK-Portrait-Use-me.jpg

Further, these questions apply to the three sites discussed above. To begin, some of the paintings and statues within the Capitol are of past leaders who supported slavery and segregation policies. Should these paintings be dismantled? Aside from those politicians, one leader stands in juxtaposition: Martin Luther King Junior. Is the inclusion and representation of his beliefs enough to correct the injustices committed by past leaders?

Source: https://media-cdn.tripadvisor.com/media/photo-s/03/e0/3b/19/oakland-cemetery.jpg

In a similar regard, Oakland Cemetery is home to numerous Confederate soldier’s graves. Of course, this part of Atlanta’s history was wrong due to the injustices pushed upon African Americans, but it’s also important to remember that there are actual people and families connected to those headstones. How should we honor those who lost their lives, while not promoting injustices?

Furthermore, Centennial Olympic Park also falls into this category, due to the number of homeless people displaced in the wake of the summer Olympics. This negative effect is minimized, due to the unpleasant nature of the subject, but should it be preserved in order to raise awareness of the homeless population’s plight in Atlanta?

Regardless of your political opinion, it is important to remember that there are always negative aspects to history. Relating back to historical preservation, those who preserve the sites need to weigh the importance of depicting an accurate betrayal of the site versus a politically neutral view. According to Winsboro, “their [historians] efforts to ensure accuracy and balance in approving or maintaining displays and symbols of yesteryear resource personnel must be aware of the consequences today of supporting, rejecting, or modifying displays or symbols of the Lost Cause version of history”, defining and depicting the weightiness of the matter.  Due to the heated debate over such past symbols, I assume that this topic will only gain relevance in the future.

A General Consensus of Atlanta's Historical Preservation

On a broader scale, the benefits of historical preservation can be seen throughout the entire city, in addition to the specific examples. As mentioned previously, sites attract tourist to the area which fuels the tourist sector of the economy. This also promotes innovation in the city to improve the experience for visitors. (This innovation could include new signs, decorative street art, fountains, and sitting area.) Not only do these innovations shape the physical appearance of the city, but also historical sites themselves play a significant role in Atlanta’s

A Historic look at Atlanta’s Past Aesthetic. Source: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/07/41/12/074112c80edc254f1bd900d2087dcc02.jpg

aesthetic. Examples of this visual aesthetic would include Hurt Plaza, the Flatiron Building, and Cenntinial Park. Furthermore, historical preservation also contributes to the economy through the need for skilled workers.

Even though the benefits are evident, it is also to weigh the disadvantages identified in the opening paragraph. One such disadvantage mentioned was that of accessibility for those with disabilities. Although many sites are hard to access for such individuals, changes have also been made to accommodate such needs. For example, there is a ramp at the Capital to allow disable patrons access to the build. Looking at the issue of property rights will still remain to be a significant problem in the future when regarding historical preservation. It may take some time to figure out the proper way to go about setting the dispute between public entitlement and private property as buildings gain historical significance.

In sum, Atlanta’s rapidly growing economy is in part due to the successful preservation of historical sites. Further, these sites shape the physical appearance that made our city and the communities within unique.

Works Cited

Rypkema, Donovan. “Culture, Historic Preservation and Economic Development in the 21st Century.” Columbia, http://www.columbia.edu/cu/china/DRPAP.html. Accessed 4 March 2017.

Georgia Department of Natural Resources Historic Preservation Division. “Economic Incentives.” Georgia Department of Natural Resources, http://georgiashpo.org/incentives/development.

O’Connell, Kim A. “Caught Between Housing & History”. Journal of Housing & Community Development, Sept./Oct. 2004, http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.gsu.edu/eds/detail/detail?vid=9&sid=2b9fcc29-0ecb-4482-9e97-e457bac7d8dc%40sessionmgr104&hid=119&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#AN=14503054&db=a9h

Winsboro, Irvin D.S. “The Confederate Monument Movement as a Policy Dilemma for Resource Managers of Parks, Cultural Sites, and Protected Places: Florida as a Case Study”. The George Wright Forum, 2016, http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.gsu.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=fe21fff3-1617-4bca-a8fb-c0171317b170%40sessionmgr104&vid=3&hid=4202

Built Environment Analysis Description

For more information on the project, the link to Dr. Wharton’s website is included below.

Syllabus & Course Info

Brainstorm Activity for BEA Presentation

Notes for Improvements

  • Provide links for additional information for usability.
  • Transitions.
  • Balance content and length.
  • The presentation should be at least 5 to 10 minutes.
  • Think about navigation.

Outline of Built Environment Analysis

  • Introduction: Run through of historical events that occurred in Atlanta.
    • Native Americans.
    • Americal Revolution.
    • Civil War.
    • Civil Rights Movement.
  • Thesis: The historical preservation of sites and buildings around Atlanta has led to rapid economic growth that shapes the city’s aesthetic and future innovations.
  • Benefits: Job creation, Individualizing communities, Contributing to the economy.
  • Disadvantages: Accommodations for those with disabilities, Private rights.
  • Example 1: Georgia State Capital.
    • Economic legislation.
    • No entry fee, but attracts people to the area.
    • An important focal piece of Atlanta’s skyline.
    • Recent innovations for handicapped.
  • Example 2: Oakland Cemetry.
    • No entry fee, but attracts people to the area.
      • Six Feet Under Restaurant.
    • Aesthetic.
    • Private vs. Public Rights.
    • MARTA.
  • Example 3: Centennial Olympic Park.
    • No entry fee, but attracts people to the area.
    • Common ground for multiple tourist attractions.
  • Conclusion: Discussion of the general consensus of Atlanta.

Summary of Conservation

From the discussion, I feel that I should focus more on the advantages and disadvantages. (It seems that these points are the most thought provoking and interesting.) Since I have already began my presentation, I definitely think I need to expand this part in the slides! Maybe I can leave the dots as an introduction to what will follow and then elaborate on those points in individual slides and incorporate interesting images to accompany my ideas.

Additionally, I feel that I need to work on a smoother transition into my thesis, instead of just sticking it at the beginning of the presentation.

Freewrite Activity (Centennial Olympic Park)

The bricks at Centennial cause me deep emotional pain. Inscribed on each clay surface reads the name of a person who’s life is forever preserved in the walkway. Some also have special messages such as “love mom and dad” or “Harvard 1996” as to contribute a bit more detail about their lives. But still, the added information isn’t sufficient to cure the curiosity within my mind. Who was Jeff Thomas? What was his life like? What stories does he play a part in? Where is he now? It’s so strange how a tiny piece of brick carved with a few simple words can represent an entire person, forever cemented in anonymity amongst the names of strangers.

Aside from the bricks themselves, I further ponder about the people who have walked along the red and gold path. Obviously, over the decades since the park’s creation, I estimate that thousands have entered through the iron gate. Each too with their own name and story, but do they think the way I do? Do the names touching the soles of their shoes, touch their soul in the way they touch mine?

It’s a question of sensitivity I suppose, but regardless I yearn for quite moments of reflection away from the stress of being a college student. At some points, it feels that all there is in life is grades and papers and emails and stress, but I’m coming to the realization that this way of thinking is poisonous for the soul. Looking at the bricks and interacting with the possibilities of distant lives, gives me perspective about what I want my own name to represent: a life full of kind, simple moments.

 

Built Environment Analysis

Historical Preservation's Impact on Atlanta's Economy and Physical State
Cherokee Nation Territory. Source: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/113504853089935162/

All cities have a history; Atlanta is no exception. In fact, many significant events have taken place on its soil that has shaped the city and its development. For example, the Cherokee nation established settlements around the city before European colonization. From there, settlement occurred and with it eventually the American Revolution. Many years later, Sherman’s March to the Sea passed through the city during the

Map of Sherman’s March to the Sea Route. Source: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/86/8e/dd/868edd2b8652ad09e5cc06c0b833d761.png

Civil War. In the 1960’s, various civil rights events also took place within. From this brief look at Atlanta’s history, it is evident that our city would be quite different without these events taking place. Further, the city would also be drastically different if the historical sites that existed from these time periods were not preserved. At an obvious level, the shape of the city would change because particular buildings and attractions would no longer exist; however, when looking at the benefits of such sites, the development of Atlanta would also be significantly different. More specifically, the historical preservation of sites and buildings around Atlanta has led to rapid economic growth that shapes the city’s aesthetic and future innovations.

Before delving into specific examples of this phenomenon it is first essential to consider the general benefits mentioned in the introduction. In order to effectively address this, I will utilize sources from the annotated bibliography assignment. The first benefit of historical preservation is the “job creation…and training” (Rypkema), which in turn leads to the creation of skilled workers who are essential to a healthy, thriving economy. (As an effect, population and per capita may also increase through the addition of more, better-paying jobs.) Along with the economic development, historical preservation shapes the city due to the fact that “historic preservation in Georgia spurs investment, attracts visitors, revitalizes downtowns, and effectively leverages scarce resources” (Georgia Department of Natural Resources Historic Preservation Division). While all of these components are equally important to Atlanta’s economy and infrastructure, it’s also important to analysis how historical

Sweet Auburn Neighborhood. Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6b/Royal_Peacock_mural_Sweet_Auburn.jpg

preservation and the economic development shapes Atlanta’s physical appearance. In more detail, the historical sites and buildings provide a specific look or aesthetic to the area creating what O’Connell calls “communities with character”. Not only does this quality foster a sense of pride for residents but also attracts tourists to experience the area’s unique flavor. In turn, the local economy benefits from the tourism sector, though the communities visual aesthetic. An example would be the Sweet Auburn neighborhood pictured above.

From these points, one may feel highly persuaded that historical preservation is the best solution for the question of decaying buildings, but there are also disadvantages one should consider. For example, most historical buildings do not provide the same accommodations for those with disabilities as newer buildings. Is the visual aesthetic and economic contribution worth the strain on the disabled population? Furthermore, one must also consider the rights of property owners versus making the historical site assessable for the general public.

Overall historical preservation has shaped the city and its sites as we know them today. In order to address the central theme, analysis of several examples is necessary to understanding our Atlanta.

Georgia State Capitol
Georgia State Capitol Exterior View.

Located in the heart of downtown Atlanta, the Georgia State Capitol stands as one of Georgia’s most notable and recognizable historical buildings. Built in the late 1800’s, the Capital itself is composed of marble and the highly visible gold dome. Within its marble walls are antique paintings, furniture, and fixtures. One of the most obvious ways this example of historical preservation contributes to economic development and the shape of Atlanta is through the legislation that enters its doors. However, one may argue that this transaction of ideas could occur anywhere, so it may be more helpful and accurate to focus on the building through the lens of tourism for the sake of the piece.

Georgia State Capitol Interior View.

Unlike many historical sites, the Georgia State Capital does not have an entry fee, which means that there is no profit being directly made from patrons visiting the site. However, tourism to the Capitol does still invests in the Atlanta economy indirectly. By this, I mean that the site attracts tourists to the Atlanta area. When visitors come to the Capital they will most likely enjoy a meal and maybe spend additional time in the city shopping or even visiting other locations. All in all, the preservation attracts people to the area who will inevitably spend, in turn, strengthening Atlanta’s economy and providing funds for future innovations.

Dome Visible from King Memorial Station. Source: http://capturelifethroughthelens.com/2015/06/07/king-memorial-marta-station/

In addition to the economy, the Capital also adds to Atlanta’s visual aesthetic. Could you imagine the skyline without the golden dome peeking out of the horizon? For example, pulling into the city on the Westbound MARTA train line, the Capitol is one of the first recognizable buildings to welcome visitors to the city. Further, visitors may have a similar experience when driving down Piedmont Avenue or even walking. To summarize, without the Capital Atlanta would have a completely different look and lose the economic activity associated with one of its most notable buildings.

In addition, the Capitol also exemplifies a solution to a problem identified in the opening paragraph. Namely, the lack of accommodations for the disabled or those with special needs, such a mothers with strollers. Because of recent construction projects to preserve the building’s infrastructure, the Capitol has also had innovations such as installing ramps and elevators to make the building more accessible for all citizens. Not only does this address the problem one may raise to argue the point, but it also provides an example of how the needs of historically preserved buildings can yield jobs that contribute to the economy, the people, and the history.

Oakland Cemetery
Entrance Gate at Oakland Cemetery.

Like the Georgia State Capitol, Oakland Cemetery was established in the late 1880’s. Upon entering the brick gate, one is aware of the immense amount of history present through both the structures and residents. For example, one may stumble upon Margret Mitchell’s resting place or grand marble mausoleums inscribed with the date of a member who had passed away centuries ago. Regardless of individual experience, the site acts as a significant piece of both Atlanta’s past as well as its present and future economy.

View of Six Foot Under Restaurant from Oakland. Source: https://gravelyspeaking.com/2012/01/23/1056/

In a similar regard to the Capital, Oakland also does not require payment from visitors but still contributes to the economy just from attracting people to the area. One example that can be seen from the site is a restaurant called Six Feet Under. At this location, they are known for their seafood, beer, and a balcony that overlooks the cemetery. From this example, it’s clear to see that historical sites’ preservation has created new innovations and business that contribute both to the physical space as well as the economy of Atlanta’s surrounding economy.

Further, Oakland also promotes the use of Atlanta’s public transit, due to its close proximity to the King Memorial station. By promoting this use of transformation the site contributes to MARTA innovations as well as the economy in general.

Centennial Olympic Park
View of Dancing Fountain at Centennial Olympic Park. Source: https://www.omnihotels.com/hotels/atlanta-cnn-center/things-to-do/area-attractions/centennial-olympic-park

In 1996, the summer Olympic games came to Atlanta, Georgia. Not only did this give a boost to the local economy, but the city gained the world’s attention. In commemoration of the games, Atlanta created Centennial Olympic Park with brick paths that lead to sculptures, fountains, grassy rest areas.

Aside from the visual aesthetic Centennial offers, the park also contributes greatly to both Atlanta’s economy as well as appearance. Let’s begin with the economy. As many are probably aware, within Centennial are several popular tourist

View of Grassy Area near the Georgia Aquarium at Centennial Olympic Park. Source: http://www.atlanta.net/partner/centennial-olympic-park/51/

locations including the Georgia Aquarium, the World of Coca-Cola, the Children’s Museum, the Center for Human and Civil Rights, and the College Football Hall of Fame. Due to the volume of visitors these site receive, they contribute significantly to Atlanta’s economy. However, these funds are dependent on the historical preservation of Centennial, due to the fact that the park is the connection between the attractions. It’s where families enjoy their lunch in-between attractions. It’s where children splash around in the dancing fountain on a hot summer’s day. It’s where school children walk beaming with excitement. It’s where people come together in Atlanta. Centennial and Atlanta are synonymous. Which means that the park is integral to Atlanta’s physical appearance.

A General Consensus of Atlanta's Historical Preservation

On a broader scale, the benefits of historical preservation can be seen throughout the entire city, in addition to the specific examples. As mentioned previously, sites attract tourist to the area which fuels the tourist sector of the economy. This also promotes innovation in the city to improve the experience for visitors. (This innovation could include new signs, decorative street art, fountains, and sitting area.) Not only do these innovations shape the physical appearance of the city, but also historical sites themselves play a significant role in Atlanta’s

A Historic look at Atlanta’s Past Aesthetic. Source: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/07/41/12/074112c80edc254f1bd900d2087dcc02.jpg

aesthetic. Examples of this visual aesthetic would include Hurt Plaza, the Flatiron Building, and Cenntinial Park. Furthermore, historical preservation also contributes to the economy through the need for skilled workers.

Even though the benefits are evident, it is also to weigh the disadvantages identified in the opening paragraph. One such disadvantage mentioned was that of accessibility for those with disabilities. Although many sites are hard to access for such individuals, changes have also been made to accommodate such needs. For example, there is a ramp at the Capital to allow disable patrons access to the build. Looking at the issue of property rights will still remain to be a significant problem in the future when regarding historical preservation. It may take some time to figure out the proper way to go about setting the dispute between public entitlement and private property as buildings gain historical significance.

In sum, Atlanta’s rapidly growing economy is in part due to the successful preservation of historical sites. Further, these sites shape the physical appearance that made our city and the communities within unique.

Works Cited

Rypkema, Donovan. “Culture, Historic Preservation and Economic Development in the 21st Century.” Columbia, http://www.columbia.edu/cu/china/DRPAP.html. Accessed 4 March 2017.

Georgia Department of Natural Resources Historic Preservation Division. “Economic Incentives.” Georgia Department of Natural Resources, http://georgiashpo.org/incentives/development.

O’Connell, Kim A. “Caught Between Housing & History”. Journal of Housing & Community Development, Sept./Oct. 2004, http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.gsu.edu/eds/detail/detail?vid=9&sid=2b9fcc29-0ecb-4482-9e97-e457bac7d8dc%40sessionmgr104&hid=119&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#AN=14503054&db=a9h

Class Work: Looking at BEA (Thesis)

In this class so far I have visited two sites: Oakland Cemetary and the Georgia State Capital. Around Atlanta, I have also obviously explored the Georgia State University Campus as well as Sweet Auburn Market, the Georgia Aquarium, Centennial Olympic Park, and the general downtown district. Furthermore, I have also completed readings on historical preservation, campus spaces, and gender anxiety. Finally, our class also participated in creating annotated bibliographies, in which I discussed how historical preservation contributes to economic development.

So how does this relate to the BEA? Using this knowledge I will be able to assess different spaces and create an argument to present to the class. Although instead of using my previous question and cites, I have decided to take a new direction: looking at Atlanta through the lens of gender.

Thesis: Through the emphasis of gender stereotypic norms, Atlanta is divided through the spaces meant for men and women.

List of Spaces: Municipal Market

Annotated Bibliography

Introduction

It’s night. You’re standing on a platform waiting for the train to arrive, while you’re admiring the glowing skyline in the distance. Where are you?

Source: http://www.slrobertson.com/images/usa/georgia/atlanta/downtown/atl-downtown-4-b.jpg

Maybe you guessed somewhere iconic. New York? Chicago? How about Atlanta? If this was your guess then you were exactly correct.

When many people picture the city of Atlanta they are most likely envisioning the skyline pictured above, but it’s also important to note that Atlanta is also home to a rich history still present throughout its many communities. But what does this matter with all the rapid growth? After all, wouldn’t you think that preserving old buildings and sites would only stagger growth? This leads to the central focus: How have the historic spaces within Atlanta contributed to the city’s economic as well as physical growth?

The Relationship between Historical Preservation and Economic Development

Rypkema, Donovan. “Culture, Historic Preservation and Economic Development in the 21st Century.” Columbia, http://www.columbia.edu/cu/china/DRPAP.html. Accessed 4 March 2017.

This article addresses how historical preservation and the creation of these sites can lead to significant economic development. More specifically, Rypkeme defined historical preservation in terms of economic transformation. Some of the positive factors mentioned that may contribute to the economy include “job creation…and training”, “import substitution”, “compatibility of modernization…and evolution”, being a “natural business incubator for small enterprises” and the “opportunity for tourism”. When looking at this list it’s important to note that the ideas were originally created with China in mind. I, however, decided to include this article in my annotated bibliography, because the benefits are also applicable to the city of Atlanta. To continue on in the article, Rypkema then discusses the ways historical preservation and economic development affect public policies. The detailed list that seems most relevant for the annotated bibliography’s purpose include the spectrum of scale for preservation projects (they all do not have to be massive),  that the areas are “determined as appropriate targets for public intervention”, provide appropriate spaces for the creation of organizations, and the chance to modernize without the destruction of history. In sum, the article identifies the positive ways in which historical preservation can promote growth in cities, such as Atlanta.

As I previously mentioned, the text cited above provides information to how historical preservation sites are a factor in both physical and economic growth in Atlanta over the years. One of the most important factors is tourism. Below I have attached several pictures of Atlanta’s most commonly known historical sites. To be more specific, I felt that the inclusion of the pictures further provided evidence of this industry and it’s significant impact on the city. Could you imagine Atlanta without the Oakland Cemetery? Without the Flat Iron building? Without the Hurt Plaza?

Red brick gate to Oakland Cemetery.
Oakland Cemetery Entrance Gate.
Flatiron Building. Source:
https://atlantafinehomes.files.wordpress.com/2010/01/flatiron1.jpg
Interior Entrance of the Hurt Plaza. Source:
http://www.searchofficespace.com/scaled_photos/photo-20120-5.jpg

Overall, I felt the inclusion of this piece was necessary, because it lays the groundwork by introducing reoccurring themes that will be addressed in the following articles. Furthermore, as explained above, the article also address how historical development shapes Atlanta (and the economy) through the incorporation of several distinct factors. I also choose this article, because the article’s author, Rypkema, is very acclaimed in the field and is published in various sources. This adds credibility to his work!

Understanding Atlanta's Economic Growth

Sjoquist, David L. & Lakshmi Pandey. “A Comparison of Economic Growth Trends between Atlanta and Other Large Metropolitan Areas” The Center for State and Local Finance, 6 Oct. 2015, http://cslf.gsu.edu/files/2015/10/Comparison-of-Economic-Growth-Trends-_October-2015.pdf. Accessed 20 March 2017.

As a comparison piece, Sjoquist and Pandey explain Atlanta’s economic and physical growth through various charts and data tables – some pictured below. In the written explanation, the author details how Atlanta compares to other metropolitan areas in the categories of “population”, “employment”, and “per capita income. To be more specific, the first section, which is titled “population”, focuses on the change in population from 1990 to 2013. As expected Atlanta’s population increased both in number as well as in rank “from 12th to 9th”, a comparable increase similar to other metropolitan areas. Furthermore, Atlanta’s employment growth increased in a similar manner compared to population, “because the correlation between population and employment is very high”. In comparison with other cities, Atlanta has experienced similar if not better growth in term of economic and population growth. However, the authors note that Atlanta performs underwhelmingly in terms of per capita growth compared to other large metropolitan areas. (More specifically, the percent increase in “per capita income” was significantly lower than its counterparts.) In their conclusion, the authors then somewhat alluded to a call for action for Georgia to “rethink its economic development strategy, both in terms types of jobs that are being added and the skill levels of the workers”.

After reading and viewing the graphs, I thought that the ideas included in this bibliography would be a relevant reply to the issue addressed in this piece. For example, the source provided evidence that preserving historical sites provided jobs which would produce skilled workers. (An area of concern discussed by other authors in later entries.) Additionally, the jobs that require such skills have the potential to aid the percentage of “per capita income growth”. Overall, the inclusion of this piece provide evidence and understanding of the rapid growth of Atlanta both physically and economically but is also critical of changes that need to be addressed. I not only choose this text due to its detailed subject matter, but also because it was created by departments here at Georgia State which adds to it’s credibility. Finally, I feel that I must note that the article may have a weak point, because the authors may be more subjective rather than objective since they are actually familiar with Atlanta.

Table showing “population” and “employment” percentages in different metropolitan areas. Source: Economic Growth Trends between Atlanta and Other Large Metropolitan Areas” The Center for State and Local Finance, 6 Oct. 2015, http://cslf.gsu.edu/files/2015/10/Comparison-of-Economic-Growth-Trends-_October-2015.pdf. Accessed 20 March 2017
Table showing “per capita income” percentages in different metropolitan areas. Source: Economic Growth Trends between Atlanta and Other Large Metropolitan Areas” The Center for State and Local Finance, 6 Oct. 2015, http://cslf.gsu.edu/files/2015/10/Comparison-of-Economic-Growth-Trends-_October-2015.pdf. Accessed 20 March 2017
 Historical Tourism's Role in Atlanta's Economy

Georgia Department of Natural Resources Historic Preservation Division. “Economic Incentives.” Georgia Department of Natural Resources, http://georgiashpo.org/incentives/development.

After looking at how historical spaces can contribute to the economic and physical growth of cities theoretically, it is arguably also important to provide evidence from Atlanta’s own sites. I choose to use the information from the Georgia Department of Natural Resources.  According to the website’s page, the author recognized what the other authors insisted in their own articles. Namely, “that historic preservation in Georgia spurs investment, attracts visitors, revitalizes downtowns, and effectively leverages scarce resources”, therefore adding monetary value to Georgia economy as well as attracting residents. Furthermore, the author also gave specific examples of how this occurs. For example, Georgia promotes the “rehabilitation of historic buildings” through tax incentive programs. This, in turn, creates incentives for jobs which allow workers to buy goods and services using their incomes. Finally, the author uses Susan D. Holmes, the former mayor of Monticello and a state representative, to further support the claim by citing the success of historic preservation in her own community. In light of this information, the page helps to add context to the rhetoric of Atlanta’s space, because it allowed me to understand the importance of historical sites around the city. Additionally, the text has also helped me to understand why growth has been so rapid around historical attractions. Nevertheless, I feel that I should mention that this piece was written with a government agency who wants to promote this phenomenon. To be more clear, this means that they may be biased in order to get the public on their side.

“Atlanta Area Employment” Source: https://www.bls.gov/regions/southeast/summary/blssummary_atlanta.pdf
The Cost Efficencies of Historical Preservation

Lawson Smith, Kennedy. “Historic Preservation Meets Community Development.” The Community Land Use and Economics Group, https://www.bostonfed.org/-/media/Documents/cb/…/Smith_Historic_Preservation.pdf. Accessed 5 March 2017.

The next article I choose to include in the bibliography is centered on how historical preservation saves money, instead of just how it can produce benefits, which is arguably of equal importance. For example, the author employs the idea that instead of spending money on demolition and reconstruction, one could instead use the funds to revitalize a historic version. (This method both has the economic benefits of a traditional new construction job as well as preserving history.) Furthermore, this method could also work in both business and residential areas, even creating subjectively better affordable housing. Overall, I felt that this article contributed nicely to the other pieces by backing up their points, while also providing a new perspective on the economic benefits of historical preservation. This information can also be applicable to our own city since the buildings will continue to age. Therefore, this article may influence developers to consider the option of revitalizing rather than rebuilding. An example of such building in Atlanta includes the Flatiron building and the Hurt Plaza. However, it’s important to note that one weakness is that the article was written with Bosten specifically in mind, instead of Atlanta.

Construction of the Flatiron Building in Atlanta, Georgia. Source: https://www.google.com/search?q=flatiron+building+construction&client=safari&rls=en&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi2_4WF2_bSAhUEwiYKHUlFAX4Q_AUICCgB&biw=952&bih=738#tbm=isch&q=flatiron+building+atlanta+construction&*&imgrc=qIxEstdOJtQcpM:
Benefits of the Historical Preservation of Housing

O’Connell, Kim A. “Caught Between Housing & History”. Journal of Housing & Community Development, Sept./Oct. 2004, http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.gsu.edu/eds/detail/detail?vid=9&sid=2b9fcc29-0ecb-4482-9e97-e457bac7d8dc%40sessionmgr104&hid=119&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#AN=14503054&db=a9h

The following article by O’Connell addresses the issue of whether it is better to preserve historic housing or build new amenities in order to address the needs of a growing population. Within this population, the author focuses on those that are in need of affordable housing, which is more likely to be older buildings. After all, “the National Trust for Historical Preservation [states] 32 percent of household below the poverty line live in older and historic homes”, further accentuating the issue. From the author’s viewpoint, buildings, such as the Techwood Homes mentioned in the article, could be equally as good if not better than destruction and rebuilding. The author then cites several different points to support her arguments as well as further back the ideas that permeate all the sources in the bibliography. One such benefit is that “developers can take advantage of the Historic Rehabilitation Tax Credit”, which acts as an incentive for the historical preservation of structures. Secondly, the author promotes the idea of “communities with character” suggesting that preserved history fosters a sense of pride in residents and may contribute to their unity.

Obviously, this article relates to Atlanta in the sense that it discusses a distinct residential area, but at a deeper level it can reveal a great deal more about the city. For example, in the first bibliography entry, I mentioned that there are small communities within the city with a distinct energy and aesthetic. In many cases, this is due to the historic buildings that are only standing due to historical preservation. Furthermore, I also choose this article, because I thought this would be an ever growing issue as housing continues to age as well as the population continues to grow. However, I think it is important to note that the article was written in 2004, so the views and evidence may be a bit dated. This somewhat discreditable factor is balanced by the author’s credentials of winning several awards, such as the Lee Prize.

Techwood Homes in the Past. Source: http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/gastudiesimages/Techwood%20Homes%20New%20Residents%202.jpg
Tech wood Homes in the Present.
Source: http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/gastudiesimages/Techwood%20Homes%20New%20Residents%202.jpg
A Closer Look at Communities Within

Lapenas, Denise. “Historic Preservation: Gentrification or Economic Development” Skidmore College, http://www.skidmore.edu/~bturner/ED%20Student%20Web%20Files/dlapenas5.html. Accessed 3 March 2017.

As many residents of Atlanta know, there are numerous smaller communities within the city: some areas are home to the affluent and others have mostly low-income families. Regardless of their majority income, most areas lay claim to historic sites engulfed by residential areas. Dr. Lapenas’ article depicts how the growth of the city can both encourage historical preservation as well as historical sites contributing to the physical and economic growth of the city. To be more specific, Lapenas details that the creation of such sites can create economic growth through jobs, tourism markets, and overall revitalization of urban environments. This, in turn, contributes to the rapid growth of the physical city as well as a push for similar sites to be established in other areas so that they may too reap the same benefits. However, as Lapenas points out, the inclusion of historic sites may also lead to gentrification, which as previously stated, can be observed in Atlanta’s trendier communities. From reading the article, it has provided evidence of why and how communities located closer to more popular historic sites tend to be more affluent due to the increased economic activity. Furthermore, this knowledge contributes to understanding the overall space of Atlanta and why there seems to be such rapid growth of residential areas around certain sites, instead of the historic sites being more clustered as one might expect. I choose this article because I felt that it would provide both sides of the argument as to how rapid growth is both affecting as well as being affected by historic sites. In the same regard, I also thought it was beneficial to clearly identify the pros and cons of the situation. Although I feel that it is worth mentioning, that this source was not directly obtained from a scholarly collection, so it, therefore, loses some of its credibility.

Below I have attached two postcards. One is a postcard is of the downtown Atlanta skyline in 1966. The other, a current view of the city. From the discussion above, these pictures depict how much the city has truly grown. Of course, the addition of historical sites is not the only reason behind rapid growth, but it has most certainly contributed to Atlanta’s economic development. Additionally, as visitors of Atlanta know, the dense metropolis has also affected the sites by creating a more noticeable division.

Postcard of Atlanta from 1966 (Depicts a sparse skyline compared to the present.)
Postcard of Atlanta from 1966. Source: http://www.atlantatimemachine.com/downtown/freeway_1966pc.htm
Current Skyline of Downtown Atlanta. Source: https://www.atlantaphotos.com/media/catalog/product/cache/1/image/500×300/17f82f742ffe127f42dca9de82fb58b1/s/k/skyline_clouds_1.jpg
Case Study One: Gainesville-Hall County

Hemmer, Lee. “Bridging economic growth with historical preservation.” Atlanta Business Chronicle, 29 Apr. 2016, http://www.bizjournals.com/atlanta/print-edition/2016/04/29/bridging-economic-growth-with-historical.html. Accessed 20 March 2017.

The next text I decided to incorporate into the bibliography was an article that primarily acts as a case study for how historical preservation can promote economic and physical growth in cities. In this case, the author focused on Gainesville-Hall County located just outside Atlanta. Lee begins by saying, “Gainesville-Hall County was recently ranked third in the nation and first in Georgia for number of economic development projects,” alluding to the county’s economic strength and potential. This leads the author to emphasize the economic power, while also identifying a particular concern: promoting growth while preserving historical sites. (This is highly relevant to both the annotated bibliography as a whole as well as the other sources.) Of particular interest, Lee then examines the example of the Healan-Head’s Grist Mill in the aforementioned counties. More specifically, the process of restoring the site in order to transform the Mill into a preserved historical site attracting tourists to the area increased economic activity in the surrounding cities. Overall, the article provides evidence to support the previous pieces; historical preservation is an effective economic growth method which in turn leads to physical growth.

Overall, I chose this case, because I felt that it is relevant to understanding our own city and how historical preservation can contribute to its growth. However, I believe it is important to note that the cities located within Gainesville-Hall County is a much smaller than that of Atlanta. However, the general information can also be applied to Atlanta. Also, I would like to point out the article was written by the associate of a chairman on the Hall Chamber of Commerce. This means that the article may have been written to promote the agenda of the Hall Chamber of Commerce, potentially to promote tourism.

Wheel at Healan-Head’s Grist Mill. Source: http://millpictures.com/images/mills//Ga-69-01-Helan_Mill-Head_Mill__Hall-3-hAllen-12-27-05.jpg
Factors to Evaluate Benefits
Case Study: Athens, Rome, and Tifton

Morgan, Julie D. “Economic Benefits of Historic Preservation in Georgia, A Study of Three Communities: Athens, Rome, and Tifton.” Athens-Clarke County Planning Department, 1997, https://athensclarkecounty.com/DocumentCenter/Home/View/291

Like the previous entry, the article by Morgan is a case study looking at the cities of Athens, Rome, and Tifton. Even though the cities are similar to the other article, I decided this article would be a good addition due to the factors the author uses to analyze the effectiveness of historical preservation to promote economic development. These factors include construction, real estate, and tourism. At a closer look, construction creates jobs as well as puts revenue into the community’s economy. Furthermore, looking at real estate may reveal a great deal about how historical preservation affects property value. Finally, tourism, as discussed in previous entries, also adds monetary value to the economy, which promotes growth. After careful analysis, the studies found that all three cities experienced beneficial results from historical preservation in the factors mentioned above.

In addition to some of the other previous articles, it’s important to understand that the article was written in 1997, so there may have been changes in the towns since the article was first written. Further, since the article was not written about Atlanta the ideas may not transfer identically to the city, but could still yield similar results. However, I believe that the factors could be applicable to measuring the benefits of historical preservation in Atlanta.

Tifton, Georgia. Source: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/21/24/77/2124779354ad7cdb4b12bab346162ffb.jpg
Supporting Case Study: Athens, Millegeville, Rome,and Tifton

Leithe, Joni and Patricia Tigue. “Profiting from the Past: The Economic Impact of Historic Preservation in Georgia.” Athens-Clarke County Unified Government and the Historic Preservation Division, Georgia Department of Natural Resources, 1999, http://www.georgiatrust.org/news/preservation_issues/profiting_from_the_past.pdf. Accessed 20 March 2017.

In accordance with the other texts, this source also identifies historical preservation as not only a necessary but also as a beneficial technique to promote growth in Atlanta and Georgia in general. To clarify, the author points out specific benefits of historical preservation. The first being that historical preservation “creates jobs”, a point that has been discussed in almost all of the sources. The authors then continues on by saying that preserving historical sites also “enhances property values” and “revitalizes communities”. (Both supported by cases observed in the cities of Athens, Milledgeville, Tifton, and Rome.) Finally, the authors then attest to the power of the tourism industry in both Georgia and the U.S. as a whole. More specifically, “tourists spent over $453 million on historic-related leisure activities”, translating to a booming economic sector in the Georgia economy. Overall, the tourism industry attracts visitors for longer periods of time and has a large monetary value. This allows us to see that historic cities within Atlanta have contributed to its rapid growth, following a similar trend as in Athens, Millegeville, Rome, and Tifton.

Even with these well-evidenced points, I feel it is necessary to point out that the text was written by a college in collaboration with a government department. This adds to the piece’s credibility, but it may also be biased towards promoting the government’s interests. Further, it is also important to explain that this relates to the other sources by confirming and identifying similar points. Additionally, I chose this source because it revealed the historical sites importance to the city and its relevance in the future. Finally, I also feel the need to mention that this source was written 1999, so the data and findings may be a bit outdated.

Milledgeville, Georgia. Source: http://antebellumtrail.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/019-Antebellum-Inn-Milledgeville-Baldwin082420071.jpg
Historical Preservation and Atlanta's Economic Future

Laurie, John. “Historic Preservation and Cluster Based Economic Development.” Economic Development Journal, vol. 7, no. 1, 2008, http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.gsu.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=c41d816f-731b-42e5-b0f1-e1d5fc425f6e@sessionmgr4008&vid=3&hid=4108. Accessed 5 March 2017.

Overall, the sources have looked at how historical preservation has affected economic and physical growth in the past, making it now necessary to analyze how these sites may change the space of Atlanta in the future. I choose this scholarly article because it focused on this perspective as well as for its credible nature since it was included in a scholarly journal as well as the in GSU library resources.  More specifically, once again the author further confirms that historical preservation can contribute to economic development through the previously discussed results (i.e. the creation of jobs). However, the text offers a new idea called “culture based approach”, which focuses on the competition within a certain area increasing the strength of their economic success when looking from the perspective of a national or global economy. From there, the author then answers the question of how this relates to historical preservation. These “benefits include access to specialized knowledge, skills, and resources; lower transaction costs; specialized infrastructure; and enhanced productivity and output”, which results from such preservation. Taking this knowledge into consideration, one can imagine that historical preservation will only add to Atlanta’s newly found economic boom as it has in the past. Alluding to the ever growing development of Atlanta in the near and far future.

Conclusion

The future is rapidly approaching and with it the beckoning for new projects, new growth, and new innovations. These options may seem tempting, but it is also essential to keep in mind the resources already available and the existent history. Looking back at the collection of sources, it is evident that historical preservation is a means of which we can have both: rapid economic growth and salvaging history for generations to come. This, in turn, will leave a space for the growing population to thrive in as well as relish the history of those that played a role in the development of the city.

Class Notes for Week Ten

  • Big Question: How do we hone in on what’s real? What are the markers for credible sources? How do I create work that will pass other people’s crap detector?
  • Markers that Typical Students Use: Good format, Grammer, Citations.
  • Scholarly Articles are important, but it’s also important to broaden to other types of sources.
  • It’s a good place to start out at the library.
  • What are some of the problems?
    • Not correct information.
    • May have a different agenda.
    • May be out of date (abandoned information).
    • Anyone reach a public audience.
    • With Scholarly Articles, only those who are established are published. New voices are less likely to be published. (If the shape of knowledge could change more rapidly studies, such as vaccines causing autism, would be eradicated.) Although it is important because they try to make the sources as credible as possible and not intentionally deceiving. The main message is to consider the author before assuming it’s correct.
  • It’s on the reader to determine credibility. Not the publisher. Not the author. It’s up to you.
  • Additionally, sometimes a whole text or author isn’t incorrect, sometimes it’s just certain sections.
  • How to we change as a culture to find credible sources. (Especially interesting in light of “fake news”.)
  • What are some ways we can verify the information?
    • Research the author. Is someone putting their name on it? “who is” search.
    • Shows a depth of expertise on one subject.
    • References/Sources. (MOST IMPORTANT!!!!!)
  • No one of these things is sufficent for discrediting site. They are just red flags.
  • .org = organization with a public mission (non-profit organization).